The Forum on Global S&T Development and Governance was held on November 2 in the main building at Tsinghua University. The Forum was hosted by Tsinghua University, sponsored by China Association for Science and Technology, organized by the School of Public Policy & Management of Tsinghua University and supported by the Center for Science and Technology Development & Governance of Tsinghua University. The event proved to be a great success.
The forum was attended by many famed experts and scholars from home and abroad, as well as respected members of government, and international organizations. Some of the attendees included Wan Gang, Vice Chairman of the 13th National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, Chairman of the Central Committee of the Zhigong Party and President of China Association for Science and Technology, Zhou Xiaochuan, Vice Chairman of the 12th National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference and Vice Chairman of the Boao Forum for Asia, Huai Jinpeng, Secretary of the Leading Party Members' Group, Executive Vice President and Chief Executive Secretary of China Association for Science and Technology, Chen Deming, Former Minister of the Ministry of Commerce and Former President of the Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Straits, Paul Romer, Laureate of the Nobel Economics Prize and Professor from New York University, and Robert J. Zimmer, President of the University also attended the forum. Over 200 faculty members and students from the college enjoyed the forum, including Qiu Yong the President of Tsinghua University and Jiang Xiaojuan, Member of the 13th National People's Congress Standing Committee, Deputy Director of the Social Development Committee and Dean of the School of Public Policy & Management of Tsinghua University.
Academician Qiu Yong, President of Tsinghua University, welcomed the many experts and scholars to Tsinghua University on behalf of the organizers and thanked them for coming to contribute their wisdom and strengthening S&T governance research, innovating S&T governance practices, promoting international exchanges, and cooperation to develop S&T governance, enhancing mutual understanding in the international community. President Qiu Yong indicated that a new round of scientific revolution and industrial transformation are reshaping the landscape of global innovation and economic structure. The S&T development has not only restructured our world but exerted a profound influence on national destinies and on people’s living standards. As a base for cultivating creative talents and incubating the innovation of achievement, the university shall turn into a frontier assisting a country to integrate with the global network of S&T innovation and deepen its S&T exchanges and innovation. He hopes that all the experts and scholars present will speak out and exchange ideas freely, thereby building this Forum into a high-end national and even international platform for S&T governance exchange and cooperation.
President Qiu Yong delivers the welcoming address at the forum
Wan Gang, President of this forum, delivered a keynote speech entitled Promote S&T Progress and Create a Better World with Openness, Inclusiveness, Diversification and Mutual Learning. He interpreted the international landscape of the S&T innovation in this era of global change, the missions and responsibilities of the Chinese S&T community and the initiatives and action plan for all the concerned countries to work closely together to create a new order for global S&T governance. He pointed out that the new round of scientific revolution and industrial transformations are evolving on a large scale and have demonstrated brand new development trends. The basic sciences further extend at a macro-scale, deepen on a micro-scale and integrate with each other under extreme circumstances. Advanced technologies showcase a multilayered cluster-style innovation pattern. Key scientific fields push ahead with fast and sustainable development of other scientific fields, while the disciplines continue to integrate with each other and technologies spiral upwards. There continues to be a reshaping to the organizational modes and traditional patterns of scientific research, scientific foundations, leading forces, organizational carriers, and fundamental resources of scientific revolution and industrial transformation. Faced with the strong momentum of the technological and economic globalization, we shall improve S&T cooperation, improve our capability of independent innovation, improve S&T supply, master the law of S&T development, improve S&T governance, serve the common interests of humanity, increase the popularization rate of the basic sciences, and create a positive social atmosphere. He stressed that technology is never our aim, but instead all the S&T practitioners shall be committed to creating a better world. He hoped that all the S&T practitioners make it their goal to serve the good of humanity, forge S&T governance framework characterized by mutual trust, establish a global community with shared S&T values, and guide S&T to serve the common values and interests of humanity.
Forum President Wan Gang delivers his speech
The Challenges of S&T Governance Resulting from S&T Developments
Zhou Xiaochuan, Vice Chairman of the 12th National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, Vice Chairman of the Boao Forum for Asia and Chinese Chairman of the Global Advisory Board of the School of Public Policy & Management of Tsinghua University and Robert J. Zimmer, President of the University of Chicago and Foreign Chairman of the Global Advisory Board of the School of Public Policy & Management of Tsinghua University delivered a speech entitled, The Progress of Artificial Intelligence and Evolution of Employment Structure and The Principled Flexibility: The Governance in a Complex Environment. He asked the experts present to think about how to cope with the challenges of S&T governance resulting from recent S&T developments.
Zhou Xiaochuan pointed out the that artificial intelligence had inspired us to think about how to cope with a whole new wave of potential influences to be exerted in recent years, especially the pressure of employment and the widening income gap. We must pay close attention to the challenges looming ahead and make initial economic preparations and public policy research to deal with the impact on employment and income distribution made by artificial intelligence. Furthermore, we shall also analyze the ramifications to taxation and try to use S&T development to meet the future challenges based upon public policy research.
Zhou Xiaochuan delivers his speech at the forum
Robert J. Zimmer asserted that S&T development requires that there be a culture of S&T development and innovation, and an external environment to popularize S&T application and promote its industrialization, a proactive government to formulate and implement the incentive policy and an action plan to mitigate the risks and meet the challenges while driving S&T development ever forward. He underlined the present-day S&T development depends more upon the close cooperation among different countries and industries. He noted that we shall uphold the principles of equality, openness, and fairness and have alternative plans in place while engaging in S&T activities. We shall be respectful of diversified cultures and systems, and the economic entities with different cultural backgrounds and economic systems shall seek common ground and reserve differences while cooperating with each other.
Robert J. Zimmer delivers his speech
S&T Innovation Relies Upon Regulatory Systems and Ethical Constraints
Paul Romer, Nobel laureate for Economics and Professor from New York University, delivered a speech entitled, S&T Progress Relies upon Innovation and Regulation. He claimed that S&T innovation must be stringently regulated. Taking the chemical industry for example, he warned that business entities may harm public interests while taking advantage of the opportunities arising from S&T innovation and make profits. Governments shall formulate and implement effective policies and regulations to prevent such incidents from taking place. He claimed only by promoting S&T development, assisting governments in improving their regulatory systems, safeguarding the ethical orders, and public interests can we make greater progress.
Paul Romer delivers his speech
Magdalena Skipper, Editor-in-Chief of Nature magazine, shared what she thinks about S&T governance by delivering a speech entitled, S&T Governance from the Perspective of the Scientific Journals. She claimed that international cooperation has played a more important role in strengthening the scientific research, but we shall also improve S&T governance based upon a global horizon and actual national conditions. In the meantime, the general public shall also participate in the decision-making process in terms of scientific research as an interested party, taking actual national conditions into account while solving the global issues. Although the international standards may differ from the local standards, scientific research shall comply with moral principles, social regulations, common sense, and national laws while adhering to fairness and impartiality.
Magdalena Skipper delivers her speech
Zhou Qi, Co-Chair of the Academic Committee of the Center for Science and Technology Development & Governance of Tsinghua University and academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, delivered a speech entitled, Biological Technology, Ethical Issues and Governance Measures. This speech introduced the idea that biotechnology has triggered serious controversies while also changing our lifestyle. From man’s analysis of life now comes interpretation and modification to creation. Following such major events as genetic editing, it is imperative for us to focus on the ethical, legal, and social issues resulting from S&T developments, which may take place in any corner of our world. In dealing with such serious issues, we shall not rely upon the self-discipline of the S&T community, but instead forge an effective and efficient system for S&T governance. He advised that we conduct research concerning the future of S&T governance. Government departments enhance the public character of S&T governance by fully participating in the public discussion. The S&T community must earn the public’s trust by improving its public reputation. Promote international cooperation and take proactive steps to shoulder international responsibilities and obligations of S&T governance.
Zhou Qi delivers his speech
National Practice and International Cooperation of S&T Governance
Taking a previous case of popularizing vaccination in less developed areas and improving health and hygiene conditions as an example, Margaret Chan Fung Fu-chun, Former Director-General of the World Health Organization and President of the Global Health Forum of the Boao Forum for Asia, indicated that we should formulate and implement applicable laws and regulations to regulate the powerful influence of S&T as well as to maximize the public benefits.
Margaret Chan Fung Fu-chun delivers her speech
Academician Wang Xi, Vice Minister of the Ministry of Science and Technology and President of the Science Council of Asia, delivered a speech entitled The Progress and Direction of China’s Policy on the S&T Innovation. He highlighted that the Implementation Plan for Deepened Reform of the S&T System serves as a key point for implementing the innovation-driven development strategy whereby S&T innovation subsidies are increased, and incentive policies for innovation and entrepreneurships are improved. Thus the institutions and systems for promoting the transfer and transformation of S&T achievements can be strengthened. In the meantime, he also put forward some constructive suggestions on how to improve our capability in developing advanced technologies, cement fairness and impartiality in terms of S&T development, strengthen the legal construction, and optimize institutions and systems for S&T innovation.
Wang Xi delivers his speech
Chen Deming, Former Minister of the Ministry of Commerce, Former President of the Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Straits and Dean of the Institute of Taiwan Studies of Tsinghua University, delivered a speech entitled, Economic Globalization and S&T Governance. The speech indicated that with economic globalization ever increasing, the economic globalization and corporate R&D centers boast great vigor and vitality and basic research and theoretical innovation of S&T development has also expanded. However, faced with such a severe challenge that developed countries prevent China from equipping herself with key technologies, China will better protect intellectual property according to law, encourage more enterprises and individuals to incorporate their start-ups and make innovations while safeguarding the market rules and order and protecting legitimate rights and interests of both domestic and foreign enterprises.
Chen Deming delivers a speech
Guo Huadong, Honorary President of the International Society for Digital Earth and academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, delivered a speech entitled Earth Big Data Promoting Sustainable Development Goals Along the Belt and Road. He said that science and technology is an important factor to achieving the goal of sustainable development. The efforts in this regard not only contribute to the sustainable development of countries along the Belt and Road, and could be the solution to food shortage, environmental destruction, population over growth, and expansion of soil degradation, but also has a positive role in achieving the sustainable development goals of the United Nations by 2030.
Guo Huadong delivers his speech
Academician Huang Wei, President of the Federation of Engineering Institutions in Asia Pacific and Executive Vice President of Northwestern Polytechnical University delivered a speech entitled, Disruptive Technology Development, in which he proposed that disruptive technology will define a country’s future, reposition the innovation capacity of a country, and define the development stage of national competitive advantage. He pointed out that the frontier of science and technology, represented by flexible electronics, not only leads the progress of science and technology, but also constantly enters the field of application, which produces practical economic benefits and improves people’s lives.
Huang Wei delivers his speech
Danny Quah, Dean of the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy of the National University of Singapore, argued that lack of scientific research itself is no longer an obstacle. New obstacles come from within human society, which is a challenge related to human nature. Human society is faced with many challenges: the conflict between technology and governance, the deepening insecurities of emerging technologies, environmental deterioration, poverty, etc. Thus it is urgent for human beings to break down barriers, strengthen cooperation, and achieve coordinated governance in global science, climate change, hunger, and in other aspects.
Danny Quah delivers his speech
Technology and Higher Education
Academician Yang Wei, former Director of the Natural Science Foundation of China and former President of Zhejiang University, delivered a speech entitled The Road Map and Uplink Evaluation of ‘Double First-Class Construction’. He pointed out that scientific developments are a driving force for progress for universities. In the process of building a ‘double first-class’ university, each university needs to formulate overall goals of university construction, for example, refine its discipline advantages, and combines with its own characteristics and abilities. Universities are expected to develop the ability of sustainable development and not rely only on tests and evaluation indexes. They shall produce the best teachers and students in the world, breed new schools, and form new ideas, to finally achieve the highest ideal in pursuing truth, kindness and beauty.
Yang Wei delivers his speech
Denis Bastieri, Professor at the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Padova, delivered a speech, Digital Academy: How to train specialists for today, which gave a detailed introduction to the University of Padova and how the Department of Physics and Astronomy uses new technologies like social network, mobile platforms, and the Internet to teach students. As well as how the digital revolution is reshaping the future of the manufacturing industry.
Denis Bastieri delivers his speech at the forum
Gong Ke, Executive Director of the Chinese Institute of the New Generation Artificial Intelligence Development Strategies and President-Elect of the World Federation of Engineering Organizations, pointed out in his speech that at present, with the rapid development of science and technology, some fields have broken with boundaries previously held in that discipline and contradicted the relatively stable content of science education. He suggested that science education should design a new paradigm by strengthening basic education, and integrating the scientific spirit and ethics into all science education.
Gong Ke delivers his speech at the forum
Shigeo Katsu, President of Nazarbayev University and former Vice President of the World Bank, said in his speech that the core skills of future talents, such as critical thinking, creative thinking, social ability, judgment ability, decision-making ability, comprehensive judgment ability and so on, and the “digital qualities” in analyzing and adopting data, are very important to the training of future talent.
Shigeo Katsu delivers a speech during the forum
Academician Zhang Xiang, President of the University of Hong Kong, exchanged ideas with present teachers and students on “innovation challenges”. He believes that the technological revolution is changing the world, with both positive and negative effects, as well as causing a great change in our lives. In the field of higher education, scientific and technological progress has brought a new way of learning, so that the learning environment is not limited to the classroom anymore. At the same time, it also puts forward a new mission for universities.
Zhang Xiang delivers his speech
Yong-Hak Kim, President of Yonsei University, pointed out that technology has impacted the original way of learning. According to traditional learning methods schools plays a dominant role in imparting knowledge, but with the emergence of new technologies, the control of knowledge solely in colleges and universities has been broken, and thus colleges and universities should explore possible solutions to this situation.
Yong-Hak Kim delivers his speech
Academician Gao Song, Vice Chairman of the Chinese Association of Science and Technology, Director of the Standing Committee’s Special Committee on Ethics and Rights of Scientific and Technological Workers, and President of South China University of Technology, shared his ideas on how to better motivate academic staff. He pointed out that although universities still divide departments by disciplines, some universities have begun to explore the establishment of interdisciplinary research centers, research institutes or research clusters. However, problems coming from integrating disciplines need to be further explored and solved. He suggested that we shall establish a new type of R&D institutions closely integrating industry and research based on high-level research-oriented universities.
Gao Song delivers a speech at the forum
Robert Orr, Dean of the School of Public Policy, University of Maryland, former Assistant Secretary-General of the United Nations, and Special Advisor on Climate to the UN Secretary-General, exchanged ideas with those teachers and students present with his speech, Catalyzing a Governance Revolution. He pointed out that technological breakthroughs are emerging in many fields, and we live in an era of rapid scientific and technological development. Yet public policy systems and policy have not helped us respond to the rapid development of technology. Higher education institutions should train interdisciplinary talents and contribute to bridging the gap between policy and S&T development.
Robert Orr delivers his speech to the audience
The opening ceremony and Q&A sessions of this forum were hosted by Xue Lan, Professor of Tsinghua SPPM, Dean of Schwarzman College, Co-Chair of the Academic Committee of Center for S&T Development and Governance of Tsinghua University, Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, Chair of the Board of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization, former Finance Minister and Foreign Minister of Nigeria and former Managing Director of the World Bank, Gao Song, Vice Chairman of the Chinese Association of Science and Technology, and Jiang Xiaojuan, Dean of Tsinghua SPPM and Deputy Director of the Social Construction Committee of the National People’s Congress.
Xue Lan hosting the opening ceremony
Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala hosting the Forum Q&A
Gao Song hosting the Forum Q&A
Jiang Xiaojuan hosting the Forum Q&A
Academician Huai Jinpeng, Secretary of the Leading Party Group, Executive Vice President and Chief Executive Secretary of the China Association for Science and Technology, and academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, delivered the closing words during the closing ceremony. In his closing remarks, he asserted the importance of the forum. He stressed that global science and technology governance is very important in promoting scientific and technological innovations and to guiding science and technology to increase human well-being. Scientific and technological innovation needs both policy incentives and ethical constraints. While paying attention to the rapid progress of science and technology, scientists and technology organizations should think rationally, accept critiques, encourage the scientific community, government departments, and all private sectors to jointly build a governance mechanism and strengthen international cooperation of science and technology governance. Scientific and technological innovation needs wisdom, as does the scientific and technological governance. As a community of Chinese scientific and technological workers, the China Association for Science and Technology will pool wisdom, promote the popularization of scientific knowledge, encourage the scientific spirit, build innovative think tanks, expand open cooperation, provide scientific and technological support for the modernization of the national governance system and governance capacity, and make unremitting efforts to promote global scientific and technological governance to jointly build a better world.
Huai Jinpeng delivers the forum’s closing remarks
Over 30 experts and scholars, heads of government, and international organizations from 9 countries and regions around the world were invited to attend this forum. The experts present carried out exchanges of ideas and thoughts on a series of challenges and hot issues faced by science and technology development and governance. On the one hand, they provided an international vision for the further improvement of China’s science and technology governance system On the other hand, they also introduced Chinese experience into international development and global governance, so as to promote a healthy development of science and technology while serving the common values and interests of mankind. There were over 200 teachers and students who interacted with the speakers on how to understand the moral and ethical risks brought by the development of science and technology, the experience of developed countries in science and technology governance, and how universities can foster science and technology governance in the process of advancing science and technology.
(from SPPM, Tsinghua University)